February 26, 2019

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Poverty as a Challenge

                                Poverty as a Challenge              



  • Vicious Circle of Poverty



  • Analysis of Poverty


  1. On the basis of Social Exclusion: Poor excluded from enjoying social equality of better -off people in better surroundings.


  1. On the basis of Vulnerability: Higher probability of certain groups or individuals to become or remain poor.


  • Poverty Line




Nutritional Requirement



Rural Areas



Urban Areas



Consumption Expenditure


Rural Areas


Urban Areas

2,400 2,100 328 454


  • Poverty Estimates



  • Vulnerable Groups




  • Inter State Disparities

Two Poorest States

  1. Orissa – 47%
  2. Bihar – 43%

Progressive States

Punjab and Haryana: High agricultural growth has succeeded in reducing poverty rates

Kerala: Human resource development was the area of focus

West Bengal: Land reform measures helped in reducing poverty

Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu: Public distribution of food grains is the reason for poverty reduction


  • Global Poverty Scenario

Causes of Poverty

  • Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration
  • Unequal spread of irrigation and inequality
  • Insufficient job opportunities in industrial sector
  • High income inequalities
  • Lack of land resources
  • Other socio-cultural and economic factors


  • Poverty Alleviation Programmes
  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) – 2005
  • National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) – 2004
  • Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY) – 1993.
  • Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) – 1995
  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) – 1999
  • Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY) – 2000


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