Poverty as a Challenge
- Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them.
- Analysis of Poverty
- On the basis of Social Exclusion: Poor excluded from enjoying social equality of better -off people in better surroundings.
- On the basis of Vulnerability: Higher probability of certain groups or individuals to become or remain poor.
- Poverty Line
- Inter State Disparities
Two Poorest States
- Orissa – 47%
- Bihar – 43%
Punjab and Haryana: High agricultural growth has succeeded in reducing poverty rates
Kerala: Human resource development was the area of focus
West Bengal: Land reform measures helped in reducing poverty
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu: Public distribution of food grains is the reason for poverty reduction
Causes of Poverty
- Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration
- Unequal spread of irrigation and inequality
- Insufficient job opportunities in industrial sector
- High income inequalities
- Lack of land resources
- Other socio-cultural and economic factors
- Poverty Alleviation Programmes
- National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) – 2005
- National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) – 2004
- Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY) – 1993.
- Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) – 1995
- Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) – 1999
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY) – 2000