Production Planning & Control
Production Planning & Control
Introduction to Production Planning
Production planning and control is a tool available to the management to achieve the stated objectives. Production planning involves management decisions on the resources that the firm will require for its manufacturing operations and the selection of these resources to produce the desired goods at the appropriate time and at the least possible cost.
Production Planning– Definition
In the words of Kimball and Kimball, Production Planning is stated as: “The planning of industrial operations involves four considerations, namely, what work shall be done, how the work shall be done and lastly, when the work shall be done”
Production control guides and directs flow of production so that products are manufactured in the best way and conform to a planned schedule and are of the right quality. Control facilitates the task of manufacturing and sees that every theme goes as per the plan.
Production Control Definition
According to Henry Fayol “Production control refers to ensuring that all which occurs is in accordance with the rules established and instructions issued”.
We understand now that what is production planning and what is production control. Now what happens when it comes together and that is what production planning and control. Let see them together!
Production Planning and Control
“Production planning and control is the co-ordination of series of functions according to a plan which will economically utilize the plant facilities and regulate the orderly movement of goods through the entire manufacturing cycle from the procurement of all materials to the shipping of finished goods at a predetermined rate.”
Characteristics of Production Planning and Control
The characteristics of production planning and control are Planning and control of manufacturing process in an enterprise, Questions like-what is to be manufactured gets addressed, Efficient use of inputs for efficient production process, Avoids over working or under working of the work centers and Regulation of work from the procurement of materials to the finished goods.
Needs for Production Planning and Control
Need for production planning and control arises due to the Increasing Production, Coordinating Plant Activity, and Rationalization of Production Activities, Cost Control and Consumer Satisfaction.
Phases of Production Planning and Controlling
There are 3 phases occurred in planning and control which are Planning Phase, Action Phase and Control Phase.
Planning Phase – Planning is an exercise of intelligent anticipation in order to establish how an objective can be achieved or a need fulfilled in circumstances, which are invariably restrictive.
Planning Phase is a combination of prior planning and active planning in which prior planning involves Product Planning, Production Design, Forecasting, Aggregate Planning, Master Scheduling, MRP whereas Active Planning involves Process Planning, Routing, Material Planning, Tools Planning, Loading and scheduling.
Action Phase – Action phase has the major step of dispatching. Dispatching is the transition from planning phase to action phase. In this phase, the worker is ordered to start manufacturing the product. The tasks which are included in dispatching are job order, store issue order, tool order, time ticket, inspection order, move order etc.
Control Phase – The control phase has the following two major modules Progress reporting and Corrective action. In progress reporting, the data regarding what is happening with the job is collected. And whereas in Corrective Action the tasks under corrective action primarily make provisions for an unexpected event.
Functions of production planning and control
The functions of production planning and control are Pre-Planning, Planning and Controlling
Pre-planning is a macro level planning and deals with analysis of data and is an outline of the planning policy based upon the forecasted demand, market analysis and product design and development. This stage is concerned with process design.
The planning function starts once the task to be accomplished is specified, with the analysis of four M’s, i.e., Machines, Methods, Materials and Manpower. This is followed by process planning (routing).
Control phase is effected by dispatching, inspection and expediting materials control, analysis of work-in-process. Finally, evaluation makes the Production Planning Control cycle complete and corrective actions are taken through a feedback from analysis. A good communication, and feedback system is essential to enhance and ensure effectiveness of Production Planning Control.