Introduction to production process
We had already understood the importance of productions planning and control, selection of plant location. Now we are going to learn about how production process takes place? What are the entities involves in? What are the methods of production process?
It is the process followed in a plant for converting semi- finished products or raw materials into finished products. The art of converting raw materials into finished products with application of different types of tools, equipments, machine tools, manufacturing setups and manufacturing processes, is known as production. It encompasses the design of the product, the selection of raw materials, the sequence of processes through which the product will be manufactured.
Two ways of manufacturing production process
Manufacturing can be defined two ways and that is by technologically and as an economic process.
Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or products. Manufacturing also includes the assembly of multiple parts to make products. The processes to accomplish manufacturing involve a combination of machinery, tools, power, and manual labor.
As an economic process.
Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means one or more processing involve. Therefore, manufacturing is “added value” to the material.
“Added value” means by changing the material’s shape or properties or by combining it with other materials that have been similarly altered.
Entities of Production Process
Production process involves certain activities such as purchasing, machinery & tooling, process planning, materials, product design, production control, marketing, sales, support services, shipping and customer service.
TYPES OF MANUAFCTURING INDUSTRIES
Industries engaged in production process can be classified as: PRIMARY INDUSTRY, SECONDARY INDUSTRY & TERTIARY INDUSTRY.
These types of Industries generally cultivate and exploit natural resources. Some of the examples are agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and petroleum etc.
Secondary industries are taking the outputs of the primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods. Some of the examples are aerospace, chemicals, computers, consumer appliances, glass, ceramics pharmaceuticals etc.
Tertiary industries constitute with service sector of the economy. Some of the examples are banking, education, hotel, tourism, transportation and real estate etc.
Product Creation Cycle
Production creation cycle starts from designing the product to material selection then selection of process to manufacturing and inspection to feedback.
Methods of Production Process
Methods of production process are classified into 3 types and they are job production, batch production and mass production.
Job production comprises an operator or group of operators to work upon a single job and complete it before proceeding to the next similar or different job. The production requirement in the job production system is extremely low. It requires fixed type of layout for developing same products.
Manufacturing of products (less in number say 200 to 800) with variety of similar parts with very little variation in size and shape is called batch production. Whenever the production of batch is over, the same manufacturing facility is used for production of other batch product or items.
Mass production involves production of large number of identical products (say more than 50000) that needs line layout type of plant layout which is highly rigid type and involves automation and huge amount of investment in special purpose machines to increase the production.